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Nutrition Basics

Macronutrients and Micronutrients

Nutrients can be divided into 2 categories: macronutrients, and micronutrients. Macronutrients are those nutrients that the body needs in large amounts. These provide the body with energy (calories). Micronutrients are those nutrients that the body needs in smaller amounts. 



MACRONUTRIENTS

• Carbohydrates

• Proteins

• Fats

 

Carbohydrates

Role in the Body


• Fuel during high intensity exercise
• Spares protein (to preserve muscle mass during exercisee)
• Fuel for the Central Nervous System (your brain!)


Recommended Allowance


• Sedentary Individuals: 40-50% of your total daily calories should be carbohydrates
• Exercises Regularly: 60% of your total daily calories should be carbohydrates 
• Athletes or persons involved in heavy training: 70% of your total daily calories 
should be carbohydrates (3.5-4.5 grams of carbohydrate per pound of body weight)


NOTE: 1 gram of carbohydrate = 4 Calories


Food Sources


 • Grains (choose mostly whole grains for added benefits)
 • Dairy (choose low-fat or non-fat most often)
 • Fruit (choose whole fruits more often than fruit juices)

 

Proteins

Role in the Body

• Tissue structure (part of organ tissues, muscle, hair, skin, nails, bones, tendons, ligaments and blood plasma)
• Part of cell plasma membranes
• Involved in metabolic, transport, and hormone systems
• Make up enzymes that regulate metabolism 
• Involved in acid/base balance to maintain a neutral environment in our bodies

Recommended Daily Allowance

• Sedentary Individuals: 0.36 grams of protein per pound of body weight 
• Recreationally Active: 0.45-0.68 grams of protein per pound of body weight
• Competitive Athlete: 0.54-0.82 grams of protein per pound of body weight
• Teenage Athlete: 0.82-0.91 grams of protein per pound of body weight
• Body Builder: 0.64-0.91 grams of protein per pound of body weight
• When restricting Calories: 0364-0.91 grams of protein per pound of body weight
• Maximum amount of protein the body can utilize: 0.91 grams of protein per pound of body weight

NOTE: 1 gram of protein = 4 Calories

Food Sources

• Legumes (beans)
• Lentils Soy products, such as tofu
• Peanuts and nuts
• Whole grains (quinoa, oats, brown rice)
• Seeds
• Meat alternative products
• Some vegetables
• Animal sources

 

Fats
Role in the Body


• Energy reserve
• Protects vital organs
• Insulation
• Transport fat soluble vitamins


Recommended Allowance


• 20-35% of your total daily calories should come from fat
 

Less than 10% of total daily calories should come from Saturated Fat (coconut and plam kernal oil, shortening, butter, cream cheese, full fat dairy products)


NOTE: 1 gram of fat = 9 Calories


Food Sources


• Oils
• Nuts
• Seeds
• Meat, fish, dairy
• Micronutrients


MICRONUTRIENTS

 

 

 

Water Soluble Vitamins


• Vitamin B1
• Vitamin B2
• Vitamin B6
• Vitamin B12
• Vitamin C Folic Acid

 

Fat Soluble Vitamins


• Vitamin A
• Vitamin D
• Vitamin E
• Vitamin K

 

Minerals


• Calcium
• Potassium
• Sodium
• Iron
• Zinc
 

Water


• Water

 

Vitamin B1: Thiamin

Function
 

• Needed to release energy in food
• Prevents beriberi


Food Sources


• Whole grains
• Dried beans
• Peas
• Peanuts
• Animal proteins

Vitamin B2: Riboflavin

Function 


• Needed to build and maintain body tissues


Food Sources 


• Whole grains
• Green and yellow vegetables
• Animal proteins
 

Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine

Function 


• Helps the development of the nervous system
• Involved in the production of blood 
• Helps break down protein and glucose to produce energy for the body


Food Sources


• Potatoes
• Chickpeas
• Yeast
• Nuts
• Bulgur
• Fish
• Rice
• Bananas


Vitamin B12: Cobalamine

Function 


• Promotes proper growth and development of the nervous system


Food Sources
 

• Fortified cereals
• Nutritional yeast
• Algae
• Animal products

 

Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid

Function 


• Helps form growth hormones
• Needed to build strong gums, teeth, and bones
• Antioxidant


Food Source

• Citrus fruits
• Cabbage
• Berries
• Peppers

 

Folic Acid

Function 


• Helps build DNA and protein
• Helps maintain intestinal tract
• Aids in bone growth
• Prevents nervous system birth defects


Food Sources
 

• Dark green leafy vegetables
• Yeast
• Wheat germ

 

Vitamin A: Retinal

Function 


• Vision
• Healthy skin
• Healthy hair


Food Sources
 

• Animal products
• Body can make vitamin A from vegetables that have carotene
                              • Carrots
                              • Sweet potatoes
                              • Other red-orange vegetables

 

Vitamin D

Function 


 Promotes strong teeth and bones
 Prevents rickets


Food Sources
 

 Mushrooms
 Dairy Milk & Fortified Non-Dairy Milk
 Fortified cereals
 Cod liver oil
 Tuna Salmon
 Egg yolks
 Produced by the body when exposed to sunlight

Vitamin E

Function 


 Prevents damage to cell membranes
 Protects vitamin A Aids in blood production


Food Sources
 

 Seeds and Nuts
 Vegetable oil

Vitamin K

Function 


 Aids in blood clotting


Food Sources


 Green leafy vegetables
 Produced by bacteria in the large intestine

 

Calcium

Function 


• Maintains teeth and bones
• Helps blood clot
• Helps nerves and muscles function


Food Sources


• Dairy Milk & Fortified Non-Dairy
• Milks Dark green vegetables
• Sardines
• Clams
• Oysters
• Legumes
• Almonds


Potassium

Function 


• Regulates water balance in cells
• Helps nerves function Important for heart rhythm


Food Sources
 

• Oranges
• Bananas
• Cereal
• Potatoes
• Dried beans

 

Sodium

Function 


• Regulates water balance
• Stimulates nerves


Food Sources
 

• Table salt
• Bread
• Almost everything
 

Iron

Function 


• Forms blood cells
• Transports oxygen throughout the body


Food Sources
 

• Dark green vegetables
• Whole-grain cereals
• Whole grains, such as brown rice & quinoa
• Legumes
• Lentils
• Nuts
• Seeds
• Dried fruits
• Animal proteins

 

Zinc

Function 


• Aids in transport of carbon dioxide
• Aids in healing wounds
• Forms enzymes


Food Sources


• Whole grains
• Dairy Milk & Fortified Non-Dairy Milks
• Legumes

 

Water

Function 


• Moistens tissues such as those in the mouth, eyes, and nose
• Protects body organs and tissues
• Helps prevent constipation Helps dissolve minerals and other nutrients to make them accessible to the body
• Regulates body temperature
• Lubricates joints
• Lessens the burden on the kidneys and liver by flushing out waste products
• Carries nutrients and oxygen to cells

 

 

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